Mr. Minow was a politically linked Chicago authorized grandee and boardroom Zelig whose skilled life encompassed practically each a part of the communications enterprise over six many years.
Throughout World Conflict II, he served in an Military battalion that constructed one of many first phone strains between China and India. As a director of Nationwide Instructional Tv, a forerunner of the Public Broadcasting Service, he helped receive the funding to place “Sesame Avenue” on the air in 1969. He later sat on the boards of CBS, the Tribune Co. and different main broadcasters, and he chaired the PBS board within the late 1970s.
By distinguished roles on panels and commissions, Mr. Minow additionally labored to create a template for the fashionable presidential debate format that has conferred on tv a defining function, past political promoting, within the electoral course of.
Ron Simon, a curator on the Paley Middle for Media in New York, referred to as Mr. Minow “an important determine in increasing TV’s prospects.”
A former clerk for the chief justice of the US, Mr. Minow had a fast and farsighted thoughts that within the 1950s helped him advance into the internal circles of Democratic presidential candidate Adlai E. Stevenson II, the onetime Illinois governor, and John F. Kennedy, then a U.S. senator from Massachusetts. Two generations later, Mr. Minow helped promote the political rise of future President Barack Obama, who had been a summer season affiliate in Mr. Minow’s Chicago regulation agency.
Mr. Minow was initially thrust into nationwide consideration as FCC chairman from 1961 to 1963, when he emerged as one of many boldest and most formidable of President Kennedy’s New Frontiersmen.
The FCC largely centered on issuing licenses for radio and tv stations and setting charges for telephone service, however Mr. Minow noticed the job as a pulpit from which to evangelize for the general public curiosity.
In spite of everything, he reasoned, the general public owned the airwaves. And he had lengthy been involved — as a father or mother and as somebody who understood TV’s potential to sway minds — by the proliferation of what he thought of shallow, dollar-grubbing programming by the networks.
At 35, Mr. Minow was one of many youngest males ever to carry the FCC chairmanship when President Kennedy rewarded him with that project in 1961. On the time, the regulatory company was reeling from payola scandals, involving bribes paid to disc jockeys in alternate for promotion of sure information, and rigged quiz exhibits. A preferred joke was that the FCC’s initials stood for From Disaster to Disaster.
The FCC additionally was perceived to have been within the pocket of lobbyists and broadcast business leaders. A md was pressured to resign in 1960 after accepting a six-day cruise on the yacht of a radio and TV firm president.
Mr. Minow got down to revive the company as a watchdog.
In his first public deal with as FCC chairman, on Could 9, 1961, he delivered an imposing bombshell on the Nationwide Affiliation of Broadcasters conference in Washington. Mr. Minow and his speechwriters borrowed from the poet T.S. Eliot and created a permanent catchphrase in regards to the “huge wasteland” of the tube.
“When tv is nice, nothing — not the theater, not the magazines or newspapers — nothing is healthier,” he stated. “However when tv is unhealthy, nothing is worse. I invite every of you to take a seat down in entrance of your tv set when your station goes on the air and keep there, for a day, with out a e book, with out a journal, with out a newspaper, with out a revenue and loss sheet or a score e book to distract you. … I can guarantee you that what you’ll observe is an unlimited wasteland.
“You will note a procession of sport exhibits, components comedies about completely unbelievable households, blood and thunder, mayhem, violence, sadism, homicide, western unhealthy males, western good males, non-public eyes, gangsters, extra violence, and cartoons. And endlessly, commercials — many screaming, cajoling, and offending. And most of all, boredom.”
He referred to as for “a wider vary of selections, extra range, extra alternate options” after which threatened to carry up or revoke licenses for native TV stations; the FCC couldn’t regulate the networks instantly, solely the stations they owned. “There’s nothing everlasting or sacred a few broadcast license,” he stated.
The thrust of the speech was not novel. In his celebrated “wires and lights in a field” deal with to friends in 1958, CBS newsman Edward R. Murrow additionally referred to as for the medium to light up and encourage, as an alternative of simply to entertain.
However as Richard Heffner, the historian and longtime public tv host, as soon as stated, the “huge wasteland” speak was a “never-to-be-forgotten bearding proper there within the lion’s very den” from the highest federal regulator.
Mr. Minow drew recriminations from community executives, who referred to as the speech sensationalized, oversimplified and unfair — elitist at finest and evoking the specter of Soviet-style censorship at worst. Sherwood Schwartz, creator of the lowbrow 1960s sitcom “Gilligan’s Island,” apparently named the marooned S.S. Minnow (with the additional N) after the FCC chief as a riposte.
Sherwood Schwartz, creator of ‘Gilligan’s Island’ and ‘The Brady Bunch,’ dies at 94
The “huge wasteland” speech had little sensible impact on industrial programming, but it surely was credited with reasserting the ability of the FCC. Mr. Minow used the eye to win federal funding to tremendously enhance the variety of academic tv stations. The expanded community of stations would later coalesce into the Public Broadcasting Service in 1969.
In 1962, Mr. Minow helped foster laws that required all TV units to be manufactured with built-in UHF (ultrahigh frequency) tuners. The industrial networks dominated the already-crowded VHF (very excessive frequency) spectrum obtainable on most TV units till that point. Instructional stations similar to WETA in Washington used the UHF band.
Mr. Minow stated he was initially unaware of communications satellites however rapidly grasped their significance within the Chilly Conflict and persuaded the president to spend political capital to hasten their growth. He as soon as informed Kennedy they had been extra essential than sending a person into house “as a result of they may launch concepts, and concepts last more than women and men.”
Mr. Minow helped persuade Congress to move laws that led to the creation of the Communications Satellite tv for pc Corp., extensively generally known as Comsat Corp., which over the many years turned a significant supplier of satellite tv for pc communications companies.
Below Mr. Minow, the FCC additionally granted a license to launch Telstar, which in 1962 turned the primary industrial U.S. satellite tv for pc. It was a crude machine, restricted in relaying telephone and TV indicators. However Telstar proved a steppingstone to the multibillion-dollar satellite tv for pc business, which has been important to the expansion of cable TV in addition to the web and varied army functions.
“His actions laid the groundwork for thus many issues that may occur sooner or later,” Simon stated of Mr. Minow. “He was capable of rework this huge wasteland by strategies he didn’t even anticipate.”
Newton Norman Minow, the son of Russian Jewish immigrants, was born in Milwaukee on Jan. 17, 1926. His father co-owned a affluent chain of laundries. The household emphasised schooling, insisting that Newton’s older brother, who had a type of cerebral palsy, be mainstreamed in public faculty to attend school, which he did.
After serving within the Military Sign Corps, Mr. Minow entered Northwestern College on an accelerated program for returning World Conflict II veterans. He earned an undergraduate diploma in 1949 and a regulation diploma the subsequent 12 months. He was first in his regulation faculty class and clerked for Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson earlier than becoming a member of then-Illinois Gov. Stevenson as an aide.
He was lively in Stevenson’s failed presidential campaigns in 1952 and 1956, within the latter race attempting unsuccessfully to steer his boss to make then-Sen. John F. Kennedy his operating mate. Mr. Minow was Stevenson’s regulation associate in Chicago when Kennedy tapped him to steer the FCC.
Regardless of the fears of broadcasters after his “huge wasteland” speech, he vigorously defended the free speech rights of TV networks and controversial programming. He denounced advertisers for threatening to cancel contracts after ABC aired an interview with Alger Hiss, who had been convicted of perjury in a Chilly Conflict espionage case.
After leaving the FCC in June 1963, Mr. Minow was an government with Encyclopaedia Britannica and Curtis Publishing, which owned the Saturday Night Submit and different magazines. He turned a associate and later senior counsel within the blue chip Chicago-based regulation agency Sidley Austin, creating a specialty in communications regulation and company technique. (Certainly one of his authorized proteges, future President Barack Obama, awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian honor, in 2016.)
He wrote or co-wrote books about broadcasting, together with one on the historical past of televised presidential debates. Mr. Minow helped make these debates commonplace, working with the League of Ladies Voters within the mid-1970s to discover a workaround answer to the FCC’s equal time provision.
That rule pressured the inclusion of even fringe-party candidates each time radio and TV gave publicity to a significant celebration’s candidates. An exemption had been made in 1960 for the primary televised presidential debates, between then-Sen. Kennedy and then-Vice President Richard M. Nixon.
There have been no common election presidential debates for the subsequent 16 years; the candidates had declined to take part. Viewing the debates as a matter of significant public curiosity — a job interview and a approach “to get a really feel of the persona and character of the individual” — Mr. Minow helped persuade the FCC to decree that presidential debates held by outdoors teams such because the nonpartisan league could possibly be interpreted as information occasions not topic to the equal time rule.
Mr. Minow was concerned in subsequent televised debates sponsored by the league and, in 1987, helped type the bipartisan Fee on Presidential Debates, which has sponsored common election debates ever since. He served as vice chairman of the fee for greater than 25 years.
He was additionally a previous board chairman of the Carnegie Basis of New York and the Santa Monica, Calif.-based Rand Corp., a analysis group closely funded by the Protection Division. Within the early 1970s, he helped steer Rand by a interval of tumult after one its analysts, Daniel Ellsberg, had leaked to the New York Occasions the assume tank’s copy of the key Vietnam Conflict historical past referred to as the Pentagon Papers.
Mr. Minow’s spouse of 72 years, the previous Josephine Baskin, died in 2022. Survivors embody three daughters who turned attorneys, Nell Minow of McLean, Va., MacArthur Basis board chairwoman and former Harvard Regulation Faculty dean Martha Minow of Cambridge, Mass., and Mary Minow of Chicago; and three grandchildren.
In interviews, Mr. Minow preferred to emphasise that he was a TV “junkie” who devoured information and sports activities applications, police dramas and sitcoms. He thought of tv a significant supply of connectedness with the world, going as far as to position a TV in each room of his home — together with the toilet.
As he as soon as stated, “For individuals who inform me — tutorial intellectuals fairly often — ‘I don’t have a tv set in my home,’ I inform them, ‘You’re not alive.’ ”